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Attention: Kathy Imrie 
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Copyright. Canada. 19.20, by 
First Edition 19"20 
leprinted 1921, 12. 12"2, 19"5, l.q2, 1, 1928, 
199, 1931, 1932, 19. 


Desire to Read ................................. 1 
Problem, The .................................. 4 
Word-Recognition and Thought Interpretation ..... 6 
Iethods with Beginners ........................ 7 
Sentence Method; Word Method; Phonic Method.. 7 
Method of this Manual ......................... 8 

II. WORD-RECOGNITION ............................... 9 
General Statement ............................. 9 
Sentence Method, The ........................... 10 
Words from l'ursery Rhymes ................ 12 
Summary ...................................... 18 

III. WORD-RECOGNITION ............................... 
Word Method, The ............................. 18 
First Words to Teach ....................... 19 
How to Teach First Words .................. 19 
Summary ...................................... 23 
Teaching an Action Word--" Run " . ............. 24 
Object, or Picture, Method ...................... 25 

1-V'. WORD-REcoGNITION ............................... 27 
Relation of Phonics to Reading, The ............. 27 
Phonic Analysis and Phonic S)mthesis ............ 28 
Phonic Analysis ............................ 28 
Phonic S.mthesis ............................... 35 
Systematic Phonic Drill ........................ 37 
Chief Consonantal Sounds with Key Words .... 39 
Teaching the l'ames of the Letters ............... 40 

Thought the Vital Element in Primary Reading .... 41 
l'ature of Material ............................. 42 
First Reading Lesson ........................... 43 
Reading from the Primer ....................... 45 
Motive for Reading ............................ 45 
Oral Reading .................................. 46 
Reading from the Primer ........................ 46 
Value of Imitation ............................. 47 


Correlation of Object Lessons and Reading ........ 48 
Silent Reading Lessons ......................... 48 
Teaching Reading Incidentally .................. 50 
1. In the management of the school .......... 50 
2. In naming pupils, days, etc ................ 51 
3. In games, greetings, etc ................... 51 
4. In oral language and in literature lessons... 51 
5. In arithmetic ............................ 52 

Suggestive Teaching Notes ...................... 53 
General Suggestions ............................ 13S 

VII. PIIONIC DRILL--CII,RTS ........................... 140 

VIII. DEVICES FOR PRIZIAIRY READING .................... 145 
Purpose ....................................... 145 
Class Work Devices ............................ 145 
Devices for Phonic Drill ........................ 151 
Scat Work Devices ............................. 153 

DPAMAT]ZATION." :PURPOSE, METHODS ............... 162 
Classification of Lessons for Dramatization ........ 163 
Scenery and Characters ......................... 163 
Time for Dramatization ........................ 164 
Lessons in Dramatization ....................... 

X. SPELLING: PURPOSE AND IETHOD .................. 169 
General Conclusions ............................ 170 
Method ....................................... 171 

Method of Teaching ............................ 174 
Selections ..................................... 177 

]I.B LI OG P,.KPtY ................................... 191 


We need to know, then, what equipment a pupil has that 
may serve as the basis of learning to read. A child who 
enters school without any skill in reading acquired already 
at home has a large Sund of knowledge of his envir,nment, 
both of nature and of man, and a speaking vocabulary to 
correspond to that knowledge and to express the cbih]'s 
reactions to that environment. These two--knowledge of 
environment and speaking vocabulary--are the starting- 
point for teaching to read. The problem before us in 
teaching to read is to add to these two a knowledge of 
written or printed symbols whit.h will be as closely related 
to knowledge and speakinff vocabulary as these two are to 
each other; in other words, to bring into a real and living 
nnity, thought, spoken word, a.d written or printed word. 
A diagralu may help to make this clear: 

The circle A represents the pupil's knowledge of his 
environment made up of objects and people ; circle B repre- 
sents his speaking vocabulary. These two have become so 
intimately associated that either one quickly calls u I) file 
other--the sight of a dog calls up the word dog; the word 


The pupils may be taught to recognize individual words 
or groups of words, when these are used in sentences in 
which the thought and spoken words are familiar to them. 
The chief sources of this material are the pupils" own 
sentences and stories with which they are acquainted, such 
as Nursery Rhymes or simple stories. Examples are given 
We want to teach the pupils to recognize the phrase 
"I see," using their own sentences. The teacher asks 
scveral pupils to mention some[hing they see in the room. 
.k. each sentence is given, the teacher writes it on the 
black-board. The sentences appear as follows: 
1. I see the desk. 
2. I see a hook. 
3. I see a picture. 
4. I see the door. 
The pupils may then be asked to say their own sen- 
tences as the teacher points to them. This they can do, 
because they remember the order in which they were 
given. The teacher then asks: "What words did each 
one say first?" "I see." The teacher has the pupils look 
at the sentences on the black-board to discover what parts 
look the same. They may come to the board and point 
out or underline the similar parts as follows: 
1. I see the desk. 
2. I see a book. 
3. I see a picture. 
4. 1 see the door. 


When words or phrases are thus recognized, they should 
be isolated, the teacher writing them apart on the black- 
board for word drill. The pupils also write the new 
words and name them each time they are written or 
Use of Words Tatglt: The teacher may now form 
new reading lessons on the black-board from the word 
or phrases learned. 
She may also arrange a game in which Jack and Jill 
are changed to Nell and Will, the names of two pupils in 
the class. At the word., '" Fly away, Will," Will will run 
to a certain place: at the words, " Come back, Will," he 
will return to his place. 

A black-board reading lesson may be made as follows: 
Jack was a blackbird. 
Jack sat upon a hill. 
Jack can fly away. 
Jack can come back, 
etc., etc. 

Example 2 
Ding dong bell ! 
The cat is in the well. 
Who put her in? 
Long Tom Thin. 
Who took her out? 
Short John Stout. 

If the pupils do not know this rhyme, it may be taught 
by the teacher constructing a story into which the rhyme 
can be fitted and repeated often in different connections. 


should be careful to use always the same form of those 
letters that may be written in more tha one way, such 
as b, e, ]', p, q, r, s, x--preferably thc f.rm that will bu 
used afterwards in the writing lesson. She should also 
distinguish sharply letters that, if written carelessly, n[ay 
be confused by the children, such as b and f, a and o, ou 
and ow, n and u. 


The class should always get the four images of a 
word--through ear, voice, eye, and hand. They should 
hear, speak, see, and write the new word. They havc 
already had the image through the eye, ear. and voice; 
they should now get the image through the hand, by 
writing the word. 
In the first few lessons, the pupils may, instead of 
writing the word, trace it in the air. As the teacher writes 
the word on the board, she may draw attention to the 
characteristics of the letters, to aid the pupils in analysing 
the new form more readily. With R in the word Rm, fr 
example, point out ]row the chalk comes down, flen up 
high, then round till it touches the fir.t line, and then 
adds a tail. The u and the n should also be described. 
As the teacher writes and describes, the pupils imitate 
in the air her motions. This is more necessary at first, 
and may gradually be dropped as the pupils become accus- 
tomed to writing words on the board. As many of the 
class as possible should come to the board and write the 
word from the teacher's model. Backward pupils may 
trace over the teacher's word, or the teacher may, at first, 
actually guide the pupil's hand. 


sounds. The only way of doing this is by the teacher 
pronouncing a word m(,re and more slowly, until the 
sounds in the word are practically isolated from one 
another. The pupils do the s,me thing, until they can 
hear the separate sounds from their own pronunciation. 
This car and voice drill, as it is often called, paves the way 
for written phonic analysis; it is also excellent training 
for the vocal organs and improves enunciation. With a 
few weeks of this training, which may begin in the irst 
days at school, the phonics will be mastered very rapidly. 
At irst thcre should be a few minutes devoted to this 
exercise every day. The time may be gradually lessened 
as the pupils becolne skilled, and the practice may be given 
incidentally. When a set time is used, it should, as far as 
possible, be kept separate (either in different lossons or 
a separate part of one lesson) from the reading lesson 
proper. Phonic analysis, phonic drill, and the roaching 
of new sight-words should always 'be kept strictly separate 
from the reading lesson. 


1. The teacher should begin with a word containing 
sounds easily made separately, for example, man. The 
teacher says slowly, m-an, and individual pupils say, 
m-an. She says slowly other words, as r- an and f-an, 
etc., and the pupils imitate her. 
2. In the next step, she divides the word by slow pro- 
nunciation into three sounds, m-a-n. The other words 
given above are treated similarly. 
3. The teacher may continue this with other words, 
introducing more difficult sounds as the pupils advance. 
Particular attention should be paid to the initial and final 


from three or four words, ,but afterwards, when the pupils 
have become accustomed to the analysis, it is enough to 
use a single word. 
2. Order of presenting sounds: The order in which 
the sounds should be taught is by no means a fixed one, 
and teachers should use their own judgment; the order 
indicated in the Primer is merely sug.ested as a good 
one. It aims first at teaching the sounds easy to pro- 
nounce by themselves and those which are met with most 
frequently, and which will, therefore, be of most use to 
the pupil. 
Phonic analysis, both oral and written, is not to be 
confined to isolating letters only; hut the commonest 
syllables and combinations should be made familiar also, 
so that the pupil will learn to recognize the larger units. 
It is upon the power to recognize and interpret the larger 
units that the ability to read chiefly depends. The pupil 
should, therefore, be trained to know quickly, not only 
letters, but syllables, words, phrases, and clauses. The 
following syllables may be taught from the early pages 

of the Primer: 
ill ame ay ed 
op an en oek 
ack ig old all 
et ot and ut 

These phonograms may be taught in the same manner 
as the single letter sounds. 

There are two ways of conducting a lesson in written 
phonic analysis : 


(g) The necessary drill may be given in various ways. 
The usual way is to write other words containing m in 
different positions in the words; the pupils point it out 
and give the sound. (For other ways see Chapter VIII-- 
(:'lass Work Devices.) 

2. To discover a phonic element from one word: ch 
from "" c]t in "'" 
(a) The necessary conditions are that the class will 
have learned "chin " as a whole word and will know all 
the sounds in it except the one to be learned. 
(b) Review the word and the known sounds, both 
orally and on the hoard. 
(c) IIave oral analysis of "chin " by slow proauncia- 
tion into ch - in or ch-i-n. 
(d) Have the class give, first, the sounds they already 
know; second, the new sound at the beginning. They 
may whisper it to the teacher, and as many as possible 
should say it aloud. 
(e) Give practice with the new sound, by saying it 
anong other sounds, either by themselves or combined in 
words: the pupils raise their hands when they hear it. 
The class may be asked to give words containing the 
new sound. 
(f) The word is now separated on the board into two 
parts--c]-in. The class may be asked to point out the 
fanfiliar parts and give their sounds. They can now point 
out the new character and give its sound. The new char- 
acter is now isolated, by being written alone bv teacher 
and pupils. 


(g) Give a drill on the new character, by tmving the 
class pick it out from other characters similar in form, 
like slt, tlt, u, lt. 
Have the class find the new character in written words. 
Every time it is found, it should be sounded. 

3..1 variation of the foregoing method, sometimes 
2sed, 1,resenls the problem to lhe class in a different way. 
The pupi]. are brought to the board. The teacher re- 
views the words, shop, top, cost, ten, that con- 
tain the sound. she intends to use in teaching. She 
combines these words into a story of a boy who "Went 
to the sloop to buy a new lop. The top cost len cents." 
As the story progresses, the class is given time to vrite 
the rex icwed words. 
The teacher continues the story, introducing a new 
word. "' It was a humming-top, and it was made of tin.'" 
Let the class try to write lia. The)" know the character t 
for the first sound and n for the last, but have nothing 
for the seeon3 sound. The pupils are now asked in turn 
to say the word slowly, while the teacher marks off the 
sounds as they are made, by touching her finger tips. 
What is the new sound? The pupils then isolate the 
sound of "i." Drill is given on oral analv.,is of simple 
words containing "i." The teacher sounds slowly a num- 
ber of words--lip, mill, miss, ship, spin. The pupils tell 
in each ease what word she has said. She then asks the 
class to sound slowly, sip, sit, pin, etc. Let the pupils 
suggest vords with this somd. 
Words that the pupils can recognize as whole words 
and which contain "i" may then be put on the board. 
so that the pupils may pick out the new character. Words 


The black-board should, at the close of this lesson, 

appear about as follows: 
am n at 
Sam sun sat 

The teacher writes on the black-board the letter a and 
has each pupil sound it in a whi,,per to her, so as to ensure 
individual effort. Similarly the letters p and s are briefly 
The teacher now writes a and p on the black-board, 
so that p comes after a and at a little distance from it, 
as a p. The pupil is asked to whisper again the two 
sounds, blending them slowly, then more rapidly. The 
teacher joins the two letters on the black-board as ap, and 
has tl,e pupil stund the phonogram. The teacher writes 
the letter s in front of ap as s-ap and has each pupil whis- 
per, blending the sounds together as closely as possible, 
until they are united to form one syllable. 
The teaeh.r now writes the letters together as sap, 
and the pupil again whispers each part carefully, but as 
naturally as possible, so as to combine the sounds into the 
word "sap.'" If the oral and written phonics have been 
thorougl,ly taught, the pupil will have little difficulty in 
forming the word. 
When the pupil recognizes the word sap. the teacher 
asks him to tell something about sap. to see if the form 
suggests the meaning. Such questions as. "' Have you 
ever seen any sap?" " Where do we get sap?" will elicit 
replies that will show the extent of his knowledge. Where 


this knowledge is lacking, it aaaust be supplied bv the 
teacher, or a word the pupil kuows the meaning of shouhl 
be used. The pupil may b asked to tell a story about sap. 
]f time permits the teacher may write short stories on 
the black-board for oral reading, such as: 
7"he boy sips the sap. The man sees the sap. I see 
the sap run, etc. 
NOa'E.--In words where the final consonant may be separated 
casily from the rest of the word, as in "sash," the order of com- 
bining the sounds may be changed, so as to begin writing them 
in the order in which the letters occur, for example, s-a-sh, sa-sh. 

Phonic drill sh-uld be giveu daily and sy.tematically 
along the two liues of aualysis aud synthesis. It should 
be kept apart from reading. 
The phonic cards and chart described in Chapter VII 
will make the phonic drill much easier for both teacher 
and pupil, as these will afford a record of work accom- 
plished by the class. Iu fact, it is difficult to have drill 
in phonic synthesis without some device like the Phonic 
Chart referred to above. 
To test the skill of the pupils ill phonic synthesis after 
a phonic drill, write sentences containing wt)rds that they 
can recognize only by phonic synthesis. 

In teaching phonics the teacher should be very careful 
to get the correct sounds herself. The sounds of, b, d, 
g, t, k, p, are sometimes taught as, bull, dub. gull, tuh, 
kuh, pull. These, of course, are quite incorre.t, because 
they contain two sounds--the true consonantal sound fol- 
lowed by the short "u" sound. 


Teacher should form the habit of consulting a good 
dictionary. The Concise English Dictionary is recom- 
mended. By constant practice they should acquire skill 
in oral analysis. Difficulties with the vowel sounds are 
usually settled by the dictionary; the consonantal sounds 
are made clear 1,y oral analysis of words containing them. 
The sounds of some consonauts, such as, m, r, s, f, are 
better learned frm the initial position; the sounds of 
others, .uch as, p. d. b, t, from the final position. Suppose 
"f "' is the sound desired. Choose words such as, fan, five, 
food ; say them more and more slowly, lengthening chiefl)" 
the sound required, until the "f'" sound is isolated from 
the rest of the w,rd. 
For the " t '" s,m,d, choose words such as, cat, fat, mat; 
pronomce them :lowly until the " t" is separated, as 
much as can be, from ca, fa, etc. Difficulty is often found 
in di.,tingui.,hing the s, amd ,,f f from v. t from d, s (in sit) 
from z--the first are unvoiced or breath sounds, the latter 
It is advisable for the teacher o know the position of 
the vocal organs for the sounds, as it is sometimes of great 
assistance to describe or actually to show to a pupil the 
correct position 'hen he seems unable to get the sound 
by imitation. The ottural sounds, for instance, might 
be produced more easily if the teacher and the pupils 
would place the fingers at the throat when they say a 
word containing a -uttura], and notice how the muscles 
are set for each sound. 
Those teachers who are not sure of the exact sounds 
should get help from some one who i.. The sounds can 
be learned only from pronunciation. The sounds--d, b, 
g w. and j, are very difficult. These may best be ot 
by pronouncing slowly words such as. t-ub, sa-d, ro-d. Ro-b, 


The unphonetic character of many of our English 
words Tnakes the written language almost bewildering to 
children. Some letters represent several sounds; for ex- 
ample, cs (city) or k (cat); s--s (sit) or z (has) or 
sh (sugar); ph--f ([lalph), ck--k (back). Some sounds 
are represented by several letters; for example, the sound 
of  is represented by a (fate. ea (breakS, ai (nail), 
av (say}. ey (they}. There are others just as 
Truly, teachers should be patient with the pupils. 

NOTr..--Teach the following as s)qlables without any attempt 
at analysis: ar, er, it, or, ur; aug, eng, ing, ong, ung. 


There is usually no need of teaching the names of the 
letters; the pupils learn them incidentally in connection 
with the teaching of phonics. When it is necessary to 
refer to a letter, do so by means of its alphabetic, not of 
its phonic, name. The comectio between the letter- 
names and letter-sounds is very close, because in nearly 
all the letter-names the letter-sound is heard. The excep- 
tions are c. g, h. q. w, y. Whenever occasion demands, 
therefore, use the alphabetic names when referring to 
letters--in teaching phonics, in transition from script to 
print, in a writing or transcription lesson. 
It will not be very long till all the names are learned. 
Then they should be memorized in the alphabetic order, 
to assist the pupil later in using the dictionary. The let- 
ters may be put on the board in the alphabetic order in a 
line at the top or in a column at the side. a few at a time. 
The pupils may be asked to transcribe the letters in order 
from book or board and to write them from memory, with 
constant reference to the Alphabet at the end of the 


Primer. They may arrange their letter-tickets, both script 
and print, in order on their desks. 
No pupil should be promoted from the Primer to the 
First Reader until he has learned the Alphabet in its cor- 
rect order, as a knowledge of the letters of the Alphabet 
in their order is of great use in all reference ork or in 
arranging lists and tables.   .- 7 ,' " 7 




In learning to speak the child associates the meaning 
with the spoken symbol; in learning to read he should be 
led to associate the meaning with the printed symbol. 
The strength of the association in each case will depend 
upon the importance of the meaning to the child. 
In the earliest black-board lesson, as in the reading 
of the most advanced pupil, the only thing that will hold 
the attention, and thereby provoke mental effort, is inter- 
esting material. 
Interest is essential as the starting-point of the educative 
process; effort is essential as its outcome. The purpose of ap- 
pealing to the interest of the child is to lead him to tho point 
whero ho will put forth effort.--Mtnroe 

The subject-matter must touch the pupil personally 
if it is to be of value in learning to read. It must appear 
for him in the form of action, rhythm, stories, observa- 
tion, plays, and games, if the symbols of reading are to 
be fraught with meaning for him. What is of interest to 
the pupil and what is of value to society should both 
be kept in mind in selecting and arranging primary read- 


sentences should be regulated by the stage of progress of 
the class. If they are too long, the pupils will stumble 
over them: if too short, they will find them too easy and 
will read carelessly and in a jerky fashion. 


One reat advalltage in beginning the teaching of 
reading by having the pupils learn words and sentences 
first, is that real reading may begin ver" early. As soon as 
the class has learned a number of words and word-groups, 
short sentences may be given for reading. From words 
aud phrases such as, top, cap, mat, run, hop, I see, It is, 
Do you, etc., which may easily be taught in the first two 
or three weeks, a number of sentences (from twelve to 
twenty) may be made for black-board reading. Such 
work gives the pupil the motixe for reading, namely, the 
desire to get the thought and to communicate it. It also 
furnishes an interesting review of the words and phrases. 

Short simple stories may be written on the board for 
the pupils to read. They are especially useful as exercises 
to promote expressive reading. They may be used before 
any book is introduced and continued afterwards as a 
pleasing change. The examples given here are for differ- 
ent stages of progress. 
1. One of the simplest lessons is the following: 
The teacher does some simple thing, then writes a 
sentence suggested by the act which the class is to inter- 
pret. The words used must, of course, be known to them. 
(Show a small top)--I can see he top. 
(Show a large top)--/can see the big fop. 


(Hide the large top)--/can not see the big top. 
(Show the large top)--/can see the big top. 
For this only six words are needed, if we aszum-' 
"I can " to have been taught as a phrase. The expression 
will appear in the shifting of the emphasis. 
o. Suppose that the class has been told about the 
Eskimos--a common topic for primary classes. Draw or 
show a picture of a little Eskimo child. Let the pupils 
tell some of the interesting things learned about the 
Eskimos. Then write on the board sentences of the 
following nature : 
I am a little Eskimo girl. 
I am six years old. 
I live in a snow hut. 
It has only one room. 
We have dogs and o sled. 
My father lets me ride on the sled. 
One day I Jell og into the snow. 
It did not hurt me. 

3. Dialog-ue is interesting. The teacher tells a story 
up to a certain point, then writes the rest on the board, 
using coloured chalk to distinguish the speakers. 
Oral introduction by the teacher: 
One afternoon in the fall. two boys, Harry and Tommy, 
who lived near each other in a little village and played 
together nearly all the time, came out-of-doors just after 
dinner. Each had a basket in his hand. They each 
wanted to know what the other was going to do. 
Harry-- Where are you going with your basket, 
Tommy ? 
Tommy--I am going to the woods for nuts. 


Harry --Who is going with you? 
Ton, my--I was just coming to ask you to go. Can you? 
Harry --Not just now. Mother wants me to go to 
the store for her. 
Tommy--Can you go then ? 
This dialogue may be continued at the discretion of 
the teacher. At the close of the lesson, several pairs of 
pupils may be asked to take the two parts, so as to get 
the expression hetter. 
There are two lines along which the pupils should be 
trained in reading--oral reading and silent reading. In 
the senior grades silent reading usually precedes oral read- 
ing; yet, because the pupils can at first do little reading 
without considerable help, the teaching of oral reading is 
discussed first. 

The most important thing in all teaching is to get the 
pupils to put forth every effort to do their work. In 
reading there are certain conditions that will nmkc any 
one want to read his best. There must be something to 
read that is interesting to the reader ; there must be some 
one whom the reader wishes to make acquainted with the 
story : ihe li.tener must 1,e dependent on the reader to get 
the story. The nearer we can come to realizing these three 
conditions, the better readin we shall have. The pupil 
will feel his responsibility and will do his best to read 
At first the reading is from the Primer; later, the 
pupil may bring a favourite story to read to his class- 


Oral reading is the effective oral expression, in the 
words of the printed page, of the thought gained from 
that page by silent reading. Intelligent oral reading de- 
pends on understanding the thought, so that the words 
may be read in thought groups. 

1. For a h.sson from the I'rimer certain preparation 
is needed. There will be a number of new words. These 
should he taught, by any of the methods already described, 
a day or two before coming to the lesson. There are some 
word, like the articles, prepositions, adverbs, etc., which 
may be bld to the pupils without formal teaching. 
?. ]t is necessary to see that the pupils have the know- 
ledge and experiences required to under.tand the new 
lesson. If their knowledge is inadequate, present concrete 
material, show a picture, or make a drawing, and apply 
any or all of these to the building up of the concepts neces- 
sary for the interpretation of the lesson. 
3. When the time for the lesson arrives, there may be 
a review of some of the words. The pupils are asked then 
to look at the picture which usually accompanies the 
lesson. They tell what they see in tim picfure and how 
the parts are related to one another, that is, what story 
the picture tells. They will, usually, then be curious 
about the story told in the book and will try to find it out. 
4. They then read silently one or two sentences. This 
gives them a chance to make sure of the words and to 
grasp the meaning. 
5. Sometimes they may be asked a question or two 
based on these sentences, to show that they have the right 


6. Several now read aloud. If the reading is not satis- 
factory, a question from the teacher will help greatly. If 
the emphasis is wrong, a question by the teacher that 
can be answered in the words of the text will usually 
secure the desired correction. For example, (Primer, 
page 11) the pupil reads without proper expression. 
]ain. rain, go away, 
Come a-ain some other day, 
Little Tommy wants to play. 
The teacher may ask, " What did the little boy tell the 
rain to do? When did he want the rain to come again? 
What did little Tmmy want to do?" She may now ask 
the pupil to read so as to tell just what the stories mean. 
If the grouping of the words i. imperfect, a question 
to bring out the meanin. better will serve to get the right 
grouping. With very young ppil the sentence may 
written on the board, and the words to be read as a group 
may be indicated by the pointer. 
As a gene'al thing, imitation of the eacher by the 
pupil is a poor way to teach reading, because it requires 
little or no thought o the part of the pupil: it is mechan- 
ical and unintelligent and does nothin.- to develop the 
power of interpretation. .ks a means of se.tting a standarJ 
of reading for the clas:, good reading by the teacher 
will have a great influence, but direct imitation is to be 
However, there are times when bad habits of expression 
will appear which are not connected at all with faulty 
interpretatim. In su.h .ases. direct imitation is the best 
device to use for correction, because it is by imitation 
that they occur at all. 


should, therefore, be given to training the pupil, or rather, 
giving him a chance to train himself, in getting the mean- 
ing of the printed page. Teachers of all grades will find 
in this a cure for unintelligent oral reading. When a 
is absorbed in a book, there is only one thing that is hold- 
ing him from his play--he is getting something from 
what he reads, he is learning to read intelligently. 
From the very beginning, then, the pupil should he 
led to form the habit of interpreting the graphic symbols 
of the book into mental images. At first he may need 
a little assistance, but very soon be will require only to 
have interesting material given to him. The following 
general method of conducting a silent reading lesson is 
suggested : 
1. Inerest: 
IIave a short talk about the picture accompanying the 

2. Word-recognition: 
Unknown words should be taught or told at 
There should be few in the material selected. 


3. Silent reading: 
The pupil should read silently, to get the thought. At 
first, when tim pupil knows few words or sounds, the silent 
reading should be done in class, so that necessary help 
may be given. Later, it will be usually seat work. The 
teacher may aid by questions or suggestions. 
4. Oral Discsion: 
The pupil may reproduce the .tory orally. He may 
be asked to tell in his own words a story of one, two, or 
more sentences, aloud or in a whisper, to the teacher. The 
teacher should enter into the spirit of the story, but should 





The Little Red Hen 
found some wheat. 
She called the cat. 
She called the dog. 
She called the pig. 

I. Preparation: 
1. Teacher tells the whole story t,, the class. 
2. Pupils re-tell the story. 
3. Dramatization by the pupils. (See ('hapter IX.) 
II. New Words: 
The, Little, Red, Hen, found, some, wheat, She, 
called, cat, dog, pig. 
III. Teac]bg New Words: 
Before the written form of page 1 of the Primer 
is presented as a whole to the pupils, teach the fol- 
lowing words incidentally: The Little Red Hen, the 
cat, the dog, the pig, my chicks, some wheat. 
This could be accomplished in the following 
manner : 
1. When dramatizing the story, attach written name- 
cards to the pupils representing the different ant- 


NOE 1.---One-space letters should not be less than one-half 
inch in height-other letters in proportion. 
NOTE 2.--Word-cards should not be less than three inches by 
six inches for three-letter words. 

IV. Presentation of the Written Form: 
Develop the story from the class and write it on 
the black-board. 
"What is the name of our story?" 
"The Little led Hen." The teacher writes the 
answer on the black-board. 

"' What did she find?" 
"'The Little led Hen found some wheat." The 
teacher writes the answer on the black-board. 
"What did she do then?" 
"She called the cat." The teacher writes the 
answer on the black-board. 

Proceed thus until all of page 1 of the Primer 
is on the bla,.k-board. 
Write the words: foud, some, called, and Sloe, 
in coloured chalk. Drill as above. (See page 54 of 
this Manual. ) 

V. Reading: (See Chapter V.) 
1. Have the pupils read the story from the black-board, 
first silently and then alotd. 
2. This should be followed later by reading from the 


(c) Tle teacher names a bird; for example, crow, 
hen, etc. Pupils give its call. 
2. The pupils close their eyes. The teacher strikes 
different objects, for example, the bell, a glass, etc. 
A pupil gives the names of the objects struck. 
"Who will help me plant 
the wheat?" 
" Not I," said the cat. 
"Not I," said the dog. 
" Not I," said the pig. 
"Then I will plant 
the wheat," 
Said the Little Red Hen. 
And she did. 
I. Yev Words: 
Who, will, help, me, plant, Not, I, said, Then, 
And, did. 
II. Presentation of the lVrittcn Fornt : 
Develop the story from the class and write it on 
the black-board. (Sce page 55 of this Manual.) 
lI[. Teachbg Nctv Words: 
(See Notes, page 53 of this Manual, als. Chap- 
ter VIII--Class Work Devices, page 145 of this 
IV. Readb.g: (See Chapter V.) 
1. Have the pupils read the story from the black-board, 
first silently and then aloud. 
2. This should be followed later by reading from the 


The Little Red Hen said, 
" Who will help me grind 
the wheat?" 
"Not I," said the cat. 
"Not I," said the dog. 
"Not I," said the pig. 
" Then I will grind the wheat," 
Said the Little Red Hen. 
And she did. 
I. New Word: 
grind. (See Chapters II and III.) 
Grind some wheat seeds. Connect with the 
pupils' experiences of the grinding of coffee, of 
ground spices, of the flour-mill, etc. 
Develop the words--flour, bread. The teacher 
invents and tells her own story of a Loaf of Bread. 
When interest has been aroused, present the written 
forms--grind, flour, bread. Have the pupils cut 
from the paper pictures of loaves of bread. Label 
these with name-cards. (See page 25 of this 
Word-recognition drill as in previous lessons. 
Constantly review known words. 
II. Reading: (See Chapter V.) 
Reading from the Primer. 
Proceed as follows : 
1. Silent reading by the pupils to master the thought. 
2. Oral discussion. 
3. xpressive reading. 


1 [ I. Sight Reading: 
1. Who will cut some wheat? 
2. " I will not cut the wheat," 
said the dog. 
3. "I will not grind the wheat," 
said the pig. 
4. Who said, "I will grind the wheat?" 
5. The Little Bed Hen 
found somc flour. 
6. The Little ed Hen 
cut the bread. 

IV. Seat Work Devices: (See Chapter VIII--Seat Work 
Devices, page 153 of this Manual.) 
1. With print letter-cards make the words--wheat, 
found, plant, cut, grind, bread, flour. Compare 
these with the script forms. 
2. Cut out from advertisements the words--bread, 
3. Model in plasticine--a cat, a dog, a loaf of bread, 
a bag of flour, etc. 

V. Games for Ear Training: 
12hyming words-- 
1. The teacher says, gr-ind, f-ind, b-ind, m-ind, r-ind. 
The pupils say, grind, find, etc. 
2. The teacher says, wh-eat, m-eat, s-eat, b-eat, h-eat, 
The pupils say, wheat, meat. etc. 
3. The teacher says, ch-ick, s-ick, D-ick, k-ick, p-ick. 
The pupils say, chick, sick, etc. 



The Little Red Hen said, 
"Who will help me make 
the bread?" 
" Not I," said the cat. 
" Not I," said the dog. 
" Not I," said the pig. 
"Then I will make the bread," 
Said the Little Red Hen. 
And she did. 

I. New Words: 
make, bread. 
II. Teacltig New Words: 
Teach these words as sight words quite apart 
from the story. 
bread. (See previous lesson.) 
make. (See Chapters II and III.) 
III. Reading: 
Reading from the Primer. 
Proceed as in former lessons. 

IV. Sigl t Reading: 
1. Who will make some bread ? 
2. " Xot I," said the cat. 
3. " I will not make the bread," 
said the dog. 
4. Who said, "Who will help me 
make some bread?" 
5. Who said, " I will make the bread ?" 


III. Reading: 
/leading from the Primer. 

IV. Sight Reading: 
These sentences may be written on slips of paper. 
The pupils read them to the teacher. 
1. Will you bake me some bread ? 
2. Will you eat nay bread ? 
3. Would the chicks eat some bread? 
4. "You would not eat nay bread, 
would you, little dog?" 
5. " I wouhl not," said the dog. 

V. Seat Work: 
1. The pupils select all the name-words from the lesson 
in their books, and draw pictures on separate pieces 
of paper. 
2. The pupils make the foregoing name-words, using 
print letter-cards, and place them under the pictures. 
3. Sentence-building from words-- 
Give the pupils envelopes containing a sufficient 
number of written words to make a sentence, for 
example, bread, you, my, eat, will. Have the pupils 
arrange these in a sentence, for example, 
You will eat nay bread. 
Will you eat my bread ? 
Eat nay bread, will you? 
4. Sentence-building from letters-- 
Have the pupils make the sentences in (3) above 
with print letter-cards and compare the print and 
script forms. 


YI. Games for Ear Training: 
Rhyming words-- 
1. The teacher says, br-ead, h-ead, l-cad, tbr-ead, 
The pupils, say, bread, head, etc. 
2. Find the word: The teacher says, sh-ould, w-ould, 


The Little Red Hen said, 
" You would not plant 
the wheat. 
You would not cut 
the wheat. 
You would not grind 
the wheat. 
You would not bake 
the bread. 
You shall not eat 
the bread. 
My little chicks shall eat 
the bread." 
And they did. 

I. New Words: 
You, would, shall, ]Iy, chicks, they. 
II. Teaching New Words: 
These words have been tau..o-ht in advance in 
former lessons. Give a thorough word review of all 
the Words in this story. (See Chapter VIII--Class 
Work Devices, page 145 of this Manual.) 

V. Games for Ear Training: 
1. Teacher says, r-an, F-an, c-an, D-an, m-an, p-an, 
N-au, t-an. 
Pupils say, ran, Fan, etc. 
2. Teacher says, h-or, n-or, c-or, D-or, g-or, p-ot, sp-ot. 
Pupils say, hot, uot, etc. 
3. Teacher says, pl-ay, d-ay, M-ay, Lay, st-a)'. 
Pupils say, play, day, etc. 
4. Teacher says, p-et, m-et, 1-et, p-ig, d-ig, b-ig, f-un, 
r-un, r-ug, h-ug. 
Pupils say, pet, met, etc. 
5. See " Games for Ear Training," page 59 (2) of this 

red dog bake 
you will some 
Who called the eat? 
Who will help the hen? 
Will you get the flour? 
Did the chicks eat bread? 


I. New Words: 
No new words appear on this page. 

II. Readil, g: 
The pupils read the questions silently and whis- 
per suitable answers to the teacher. 


lII. Seat Wor': 
The pupils make all the words and sentences ou 
this page with their print letter-cards. 
These should be compared carefully with the 
script forms. 

IV. Transition from Script to Print: 
Reference has already been made to the Primary 
Word Builder, the Economo Word Builder, 
and to the chart showing small and capital 
letters in both script and print. (See Sat 
Work, page 56 of this Manual.) If the teacher has 
followed the seat work instructions, the script and 
print letter-forms of all of the letters (with the pos- 
sible exception of j, q, v, x, z,) will have been com- 
pared aml contrasted several times. The pupil will 
not experience any special difficulty, therefore, in 
passing from script to print at this point. The 
change from script to print is not usually difficult, 
because the script and print forms of all but a 
very few letters are so nmt-h alike that one is easily 
recognized from the other. Pages 9 and 10 of tile 
Primer have been set apart, however, that special 
drill and emphasis may be given to this work before 
introducing tile pnpil to a printed page. All of tile 
word-forms on these two pages are given ill both 
script and print, in order that points of resemblance 
and difference may be noted again. It is unneces- 
sary to repeat special instructions here. T.achers 
will find suggestive devices given in connection with 
seat work in Teaching Totes on pages 1-15 of the 


2. I am little. 
I am red. 
I can eat wheat. 
Who am I ? 

Do you see the dog? 
He has some bread. 
Will he eat it ? 

Steps in lesson procedure: (See Chapter V.) 
1. Silent reading for mastery of thought. 
2. Drawing by pupils with crayons, to illustrate the 
pictures which they see in the story. 
3. Oral discussion. 
4. Expressive reading. 


This little pig went to market. 
This little pig stayed at home. 
This little pig had roast beef. 
This little pig had none. 
This little pig said, 
"Wee, wee," 
All the way home. 

Rain, rain, go away, 
Come again some other day, 
Little Tommy wants to play. 
Rain, rain, go away. 


2. Teaching the sounds- 
(a) LEsso I--Teach the following sounds : pig -ig -p ; 
cat -at -c -a. 
The following known words are writtefi on the 
black-board: pig, beef, cat, home, market, pig, 
cat, roast, little, cat, pig, home, roast, cat, beef, 
pig, market, little. 
Use devices closely related to the experiences of 
the pupils. (See Chapter VIII.) 
The teacher whispers to one pupil, " Find the 
word, market." A pupil points to the word, 
mart'et. Other pupils say the word. It is then 
erased wherever found on the black-board. Treat 
similarly the wor4s, pig, beef, cat, home, roast, 
little. The teacher then writes the words, pig, and 
cat, on the black-board again. 
Ear Appeal: 
The teacher reviews the ear-training exercises in 
rhyming words, thus-- 
The teacher says, p-ig, b-ig, d-ig, f-ig, r-ig. 
The pupils say, pig, big, dig, fig, rig. 
Teacher: What sound did you hear in all these 
words? Pupil says, ig. 
Teacher: Divide pig into two parts. A pupil 
analyses thus--p-ig. 
Eye Appeal: 
Teacher: Divide the word pig on the black-board 
into these two parts. A pupil should do this, 
using a vertical line, thus-- plig. 
Teacher covers p and asks, What does this part 
(ig) say? A pupil says, ig, and underlines with 
yellow chalk. Reverse and eliminate the p. 


Pupil says, maen. Hen and men are erased from 
Teacher: Find the word, up. The word is erased. 
Teacher: Find the word, all. Find other words 
that have the same ending. 
Pupils say the three words, all, fall, wall. Words are 
Other words treated similarly. 
Ear ..1 ppeal : 
Teacher says, m-en, t-en, h-en, p-en. 
Pupils blend orally and say, n,n, ten, hen, pen. 
Teacher: What sound is the same in these wrds? 
Pupils: en. 
Teacher: Divide men into two parts. 
Pupil analyses thus: m-en. 
Eye A ppeal: 
Teacher writes the word men on the black-bard. 
Teacher: Divide the word, nen, into the two 
parts which you have just heard. 
A pupil divides, using a vertical line, thus--m[en. 
Teacher covers the letter m anal asks, What does 
this part, e, say ? 
Pupil says, en, and underlines with yellow chalk. 
Reverse and eliminate m. 
Likewise eliminate the vowel e from the phono- 
gram en.. 
The word pg is written on the back-board. Pupils 
are asked to divide it into two parts, thus--plig. 
They give the power of the parts. 
Teacher then writes the word pen under the word 
men, thusmen 


IV. Sight Rea,di,g : 
1. Do you see the horses? 
Do you see the men ? 
The horses pulled the wheat to market. 
The men sat on the wheat. 
The horses pulled the flour all the way home again. 
Did the men grind the wheat into flour ? 
2. Do you see this little boy? 
Who is he ? 
He has a pie. 
He went to a corner to eat it. 
Steps in lesson procedure: 
1. Silent reading for mastery of thought. 
2. Drawing hy pupils with crayons, to illustrate the 
pictures they see in the story. 
3. (ral discussion. 
4. Expressive reading. 
V. Seat Work: 
1. Build a wall or fence with sticks. Have the pupils 
use their letter-cards and ,build all the three-letter 
words found on page 12 of the Primer, in both script 

and print, thus: 

2. ]Iodel in plasticine Humpty Dumpty on the wall, 
Jack 'ttorner's pie, the King's horses. 


3. Any of the former suggestions that the teacher may 
nd suitable should be used in this lesson and also 
in the lessons which follow. 


Jack and Jill 
Went up the hill 
To get a pail of water; 
Jack fell down 
And broke his crown, 

Fly away, Pip. 
Fly away, Pop. 

There were two robins 
In an old tree top. 
One was called Pip, 
The other called Pop. 

Come back, Pip. 
Come back, Pop. 
I. New Work: 
Jill, hill, get, pail, of, water, fell, down, broke, 
crown, came, tumbling, after, 
There, were, two, robins, an, old, tree, top, One, 
was, Pip, Pop, Fly, back. 


Pupils read the words silently as the teacher 
joins a letter to the family name. Thus new 
words are formed for risual recognition. 
Teacher then asks pupil to name the words, for 
example, h ill 
The process is- 
(a) Oral blend of the key word, hill, and familiar 
words ending il the phonogram, ill. 
(b) The silent (thought) blend of rhyniing vords 
of the ill group. 
(c) Instant recognition and pronunciation of 
words--mill, till, hill, pill. 
NOTr:.--Oral blending in visual recognition should be mini- 
mied from the beginning. The aim should be instant auto- 
marie 'ord-reeognition as a result of the silent (thought) 
blend. This is the foundation principle of real success in 

Further application as suggested in previous lessons. 
The phonogram, op, may be eliminated, using the 
known word, top, as key word, together with the 
new words, 
The Z'ey words, back. get, came, an, are used to elim- 
inate the phonograms, ack, et, ame, an. 



beginning with this sound, make these 
words with the letter-cards, and be able 
to pronounce them. 
Similar exercise with initial p. 

IV. Sight Reading: 
Jack Horner and Tom Thumb 
went up the hill. 
They went to get 
some flour and plums 
to make a Christmas pie. 
On the way up 
Tom fell down. 
Jack: Oh, Tom! You fell down. 
Tom: Help me, Jack! Ilelp me! 
Jack: I will lndl you up, Tom. 
See the king's horses 
And the king's men, Tom! 
Kins men: We want some pie, 
And the horses want a pail of water. 
Jack: I will get the pie. 
Tom: I will get the pail of water. 

Steps in Lesson Procedure: 
1. Silent reading for mastery of thought. 
2. Drawing by pupils with crayons, to illustrate the 
pictures they see in the story. 
3. Oral discussion. 

4. Expressive reading. 


2. After the written form has been presented, use the 
method outlined in the lessons immediately preced- 
ing, to teach the visual symbols. 

lII. Phonics: 
1. Teach the following sounds-- 

see -ee 
by -y 
bow -ow 
and -and 
but -ut 
old -old. 

2. The phonograms, s, ee, y, ow, and, t, old, may be 
developed according to previous outlines. 

3. New words which can be recognized independently 
from the phonic power acquired-- 

Key words are in italic-- 

see by bow and but old 
bee my cow sand cut cold 
now band nut told 
mow land hut hold 
how hand sold 

IV. ,Sight Readin: 
Bill: What did you say, Pat? 
Pat: I am cold. Let ts play a game. 
Bill: Where shall we play? 
Pat: Let us play on the hay in the mow. 
Bill: Do cats and pigs eat hay ? 


Pat: No, neither cats nor pigs eat hay, 
but horses and cows do. 
Bill: .See the horse wifh the two sacks on his back. 
What is in the sacks? 
Pat: There is flour in one and wheat in the other. 
Steps in Lesson Procedure: 
1. Silent reading for mastery of thought. 
?. Drawing by pupils with crayons, to illustrate the 
pictures they see in the story. 
3. Oral liscussion. 
4. Expressive reading. 



Hush a bye, baby, 
On the tree top, 
When the wind blows, 
The cradle will rock. 

When the bough breaks, 
The cradle will fall, 
Down tumbles baby, 
Bough, cradle, and all. 

I. New Words: 
Hush, bye, baby, blows, cradle, 
breaks, tumbles. 
II. Method: 
Use Nursery Rhyme Method. 





The second Figure shows black-board chart just 
after new phonogram, it, has been presented. 
The third Figure shows black-board chart at close 
of lessor,. 





(d) 'ew family 
learned similarly. 
(i) ap and ip 
lap lip 
nap nip 
rap rip 
sap sip 
tap tip 

names and additional words 
(op and up are already known.) 
op up 
hop cup 
pop pup 


Scat Application : 
(a) Pupils build a house with laying-sticks. (See 
page ,1 of this Manual.) Use cut up slips of 
paper on which are written the words, would, could, 
s]oJlld, one group for each pupil. 
(b) An extension of this exercise may be made by 
having te pupils make fle family name three 
times, and then prefix the initial letters (w, c, sh,) 
with print letter-cards. 
3. New family names and additional words learned: 
(See page 92 of this Manual.} 
(a} ag, eg, og, ug (ig is already known.) 

ag eg ig og 
bag beg big bog bug 
nag leg dig dog dug 
rag peg fig fog hug 
tag rig hog mug 
wag wig log pug 
stag rug 

(b ) end ( already known.) 


and end 
band bend 
hand lend 
land mend 
sand send. 
Sight Reading: 

1. Stanza 2, Primer, page 16, furnishes an ideal exer- 
cise in sight reading. It should be so treated. 



-oo with 

t, m, c, and in the words-- 
loop, root, hoop, soot, coop. 
shoot, boot, cool, pool, 
school, food, roof, room, 
hot, f, poor, etc. 

(b) New family names-- 
(i) in and on (an, en, tn, are already knowa.) 
an en in on un 
man men pin bun 
pan den tin sun 
ran hen win fun 
tan pen spin nun 
plan ten grin run 
when fin pun. 

(ii) am em im om 
ham hem him Tom hum 
ram stem dim sum 
Sam rim chum 
tam Tim plum. 

(iii) eck and iwk (ack, ick. ock. are already known.) 

-ack with t. b, 1, p, r. J, s, h, wh 
-eck with n.d. p, eh, sp 
-ick with s, 1, p, t, w, D, ch 
-oek with 1, d, r, s, sh 
-uck with d, 1. 


(c) Blended consonants-- 
Pupils ha'e learned the power of the single con- 
sonants--s, t, p, 1, etc., from key words. Pupils 
should use abstract phonic power to build syntheti- 
cally-st, sp, and pl, in words. 

st sp 
stop spoon 
still spin 
stem spm 
step speck 
stick spot 
stuck spill 
stack spake 
steep spit 
steam spilt 
stand sped 
stoop spool 
steel spend 
stool speed 


Teacher writes the word stop on the black-board. 
Pupils blend silently and whisper the word to the 
With fhose who do not recognize the word, the 
following procedure may be taken: 
Teacher builds word synthetically, beginning at the 
left. She writes st, pauses, then writes op. There 
should be no separation of the phonograms. Pupils 
blend silently and tell the word to the teacher. 
Those who still fail should blend orally. In all 
cases words should be pronounced as wholes. 



Soon they met a gun. "Where are you 
going?" said the gun. " To play with Little 
Boy Blue," said the horn and the drum. 
"Will you come too?" 
"Yes, I will," said the gun. 
So the horn, and the drum, and the gun 
went to find Little Boy Blue. Boy Blue vas 
under the haystack, fast asleep. 
"Who will wake him ?" said the horn. 
" I will," said the drum. 
"I will," said the gun. 
"No, I will," said the horn; and it blew so 
loudly that up jumped Little Boy Blue. 
And the horn and the drum and the gun 
played with him all day. 
I. New Words: 
1. him. 
2. No, blew. l,,udly, that, jumped. 
|I. Metltod: 
Follow lhe plan outlined under this heading on 
page 100 of this Manual. 
Ill. Plonics: 
1. Teach the following sounds, using the.e 
words as l'ey words: 
lump -ump -j 
toy -oy 
road -oa. 


Key Word Phonogram 

(a) New words which the pupil can recognize in- 

jump -ump with 1, p, b, d, h, st, pl 
jump -j with am, et, ay, ig, og, ug 
J with ack, ira, ill 
toy -oy with b, j, R. 
road -oa as in : 
toad coal soap toast 
load oats roar coast 
coat oar soar boast 
boat roam loaf roast 
goat loan moan 
h,am foam groan. 

(b) Blended consonants--s/, tr, sn--(See page 102 of 
this Manual.) 
sl with ip, op, ap, at, or, it, ed, id, am, im 
tr with y, ee, ay, or. ira. ip. ap. od, ick, uck, 
ack, ust, eat. umpet 
su with ap, ip, uff, iff, ake. 
(c) New family names- 
(i) ell (all and ill are known.) 
all with b.c,f.h,t.w, st 
ell witi, b. f, s. t. w, N. sp 
ill with f, h, m, s, w, B, st, sp, ch. 
(ii) est, ist. o.t, ust (ast is known.) 

ast with f,c, 1. m, p 
est with b.r.p.w 
ist with f. l,m 
ost with c. 1 
ust with d.m. r, g, tr. 


IV. Sight Reading: 
1. Dick : Good-morning, Dan ! 
Will you come to the lake? 
it is a good day for a swin. 
The water will not be cold to-day. 

Dan : May 
Mother : Yes, 
Dick : Did 
Dan : Yes, 

Dick : 

I go to the lake, M.thor? 
you may g,. 
you see Tim and Don go by? 
they went hy at {en o'clock. 

Will you help me pack my lunch ? 
What shall I take? 

Dan : 

Dick : 

Dan : 

Dick : 

I hare bread and meat, buns and jam, and 
I wish we could get some fish. 
We could bake them on the sand. 
It is a shame, Dan, 
not to take your dog and gun. 
We could shoot at the rats 
that lh, e in the old shack 
near the lake. 
I will! That will be fun. 
The shot is in the bag in the shed. 
Come on, Dan. I am going now. 
2. I see the mon, 
And the moon sees me ; 
God bless the moon, 
And God bless me. 


2. Use Stanza 2 as an exercise in sight reading. 
:N'oTE.--:N'o further suggestions will be given as to method of 
conducting lessons in sight reading. In this and succeeding les- 
sons follow the plan already outlined. 

HI. Plonics: 
1. Teach the following sounds, using 
words as key words-- 
market -ark -at -k 

these known 

eoril -or 
her -er 
girl -ir 
2. (a) The phonograms, ark, ar, k, and or, may be 
taught according to previous outlines. 
(b} The phonograms, er and ir. should be taught 
(c) New family, ur, should be learned in conjunc- 
tion with er and Jr. 
3. New words which the pupil can recognize indepen- 

(a) ark r ar k 
bark car lard ask 
dark tar hard mask 
hark star card desk 
lark harp arm dusk 
mark sharp farm silk 
park barn smart kiss. 
spark darn garden 
(b) ar born pork port short 
Uorn fork sport fort. 
morn cork storm 
torn for shorn 

(c) er 


fern under primer reader 
term butter taller farmer 
jerk better caller smarter 
perch dinner winter darker 
herd sister summer harder 
after chapter shorter. 

sir bird shirt firm 
fir first skirt whirl. 
stir dirt dairp 

fur furl surf spurn 
cur hurl turf burst. 
purr turn hurt 
curl burn churn 

Present (a) as a unit, (b) as a unit, and (c) as a 

(d) ame, ake, ow, zm, p 

ame with 
ake with 
ow with 

ump with 

s, d, f, g, 1, n, t. sh 
1, m, r, t. w, b. c, sp, sn, sh 
c, b, h, m. r. pl, and in owl, howl, 
flower, shower 
b, d, h, 1. p, st, pl. 



(e) Blended consonants---cr, cl, fl 
cr op. am. ib, ack, ust, ock, own 
cl ap. ip. od, ad. ick, uck, ock. ump, 
amp. ear, own 
fl at, ed. ap. op. aft. it, ip, ash, esh, ush, ock, 
ake, and in flicker, flutter. 


IV. Sig]t Reading: 

Father : 
Jean : 
Robert : 
Flora : 
All : 

Flora : 

Jean : 
Robert : 

1%rman : 

Flora : 

Father : 

Who wants a street-car ride ? 
I do! 
I do! 
I do! 
We do! We do, Daddy. t 
Who will pay for us ? 
Who has the tickets ? 
Where shall we go? 
Let us go to the park, Daddy. 
Which car shall we take ? 
See, the car is comilg. 
Here it is. 
May I stop the car, Daddy ? 
Will the car stop for me ? 
Oh! It is an open car. 
I love open cars, don't you ? 
Come on. Hurry up. Jump in. 




This is our flag. 
It is the Union Jack. 
The flag is red, white, and blue. 
The red says, " Be brave !" 
The white says, "Be pure !" 
The blue says, "Be true !" 
Our soldiers fought 
for this flag in the Great War. 


(c) Blended consonants--br, bl, so, scr 
br with an, ag, ow, ick, ake, ed, oom 
bl with or, ack, ock, ast, ame, end 
sc with urn, an 
scr with ap, earn, een, eech, ipt. 

IV. Sight Reading: 

Jean : 
:Norman : 
Flora : 

Robert : 
Father : 
Robert : 
Man : 
Flora : 
All : 
Flora : 
Father : 

Here we are at the park! 
Daddy! Let us go to the pond. 
Oh, yes! We wish to see the little ducks and 
the fish. 
Let us run. I can get there first. 
One, two, t]ree, go! Now. don't fall in. 
I told you I could win. 
Ice-cream; lee-cream! Pop-corn! 
May we have some. Daddy ? Do get us some. 
Please do. Please do, Daddy. 
I love ice-cream. 
The sun is going down now. 
Here is the car. Come on. 
Jump in. 

We must g.) 
Hurry up. 



We are little birds. 
One, two, three, four, five. 
We are five little birds. 
Five little birds can fly. 
Five little birds can sing. 


One little bird sings, 
" How do you do?" 
And one little bird sings, 
"I like you." 

And one little bird sings, 
"A crust, if you please." 
And one little bird sings, 
" I like cheese." 
And one little bird sings, 
" South we must fly." 
So one, two, three, four, five 
Little birds sang, 
" Good-bye, good-bye." 

I. New ll'ords: 
1. We, birds, bird, How, crust, if, please, must. 
2. three, four, five, sing, sings, like, cheese, south, sang. 

II. Phonics: 
1. Tca.h the following sounds, using these 
words as key words-- 
sanff -ang 
sing -ing 
south -ou -th {breath) 
that -th (voice). 

2. New family names-- 
(a) ng eng ,ng 
sang sing sling song 
bang wing swing long 




One, two, thle, four little ducks, 
and two little chickens. 

One little chicken peeps, 
"How do you do?" 

And one little duck quacks, 
" I'll chase you !" 

Another little duck quacks, 
"Hear me talk !" 

Another little duck quacks, 
" See me walk !" 

Another little duck quacks, 
"Watch me swim !" 

And one little chicken peeps, 
" Don't go in !" 
I. New Words: 
I. ducks, chickens, chicken, peeps, Another, IIear, 
2. quacks, chase, talk, walk, Watch. 
II. Phonics: 
I. Teach the following sounds, using these known 
words as key words-- 
quacks -qu (sound is shortened, tightened koo). 
other -other. 


"'I wish I could see," said the other. 
" I cannot see the way to go," said the blind man. 
" I can see the way," said the lame man; " but 
cannot walk." 
"' Get on my back," said the blind man ; 
"'I will be legs or you; 
you will be eyes for me." 
So both went on their way. 

See the people running! 
Why are they framing? 
They are shouting, too. 
What are they shouting? 
Oh, hear the bells ringing! * 
What is the matter? 
Why, don't you know? It is a fire! 
Look! There it is, down there! 
Here comes the fire engine. 
How fast the horses go! 
Let us go, too. 
I. New Words: 
1. running, Why, shouting, Oh, bells, ringing, matter, 
don't, Here, comes, L,t, us 
2. people, know, fire, Look, engine. 
II. Phonics: 
1. Teach the following sounds, using these known 
words as key words-- 
know -ow kn- 
look -ook. 


2. (a) Words having phonogram, ow--- 
row, low, crow. slow, blow, grow, show, flow, 
snow. throw, window, own, sown, grown, 
shown, thrown, bowl. lower, elbow, pillow, 
follow, hollow, shadow. 
(b) Words having phonogram, 
knee. kneel, knelt, knit, kmot. knob. knock, 
knocking, knapsack. 
(c) Words having phonogram, ook-- 
book. cook, hook, took, nook, brook, crook, 

(d) l'honogram, ood, related to phonogram, ook-- 
hood, wood, stood, good, woodpecker. 


Words having the same vowel sound as oo in 
put, pull. full, puss, bush, push, foot, wool. 

([) Phonogram, ild, related to phonogram, old-- 

old cold ild 
older colder child 
oldest coldest wild 
folder scold mild 
holder goldfish milder. 

(g) Blended consonantspr, fr, gr, sw 
pr with ira, op, od, oud, int, ank, ay, each 
fr with ee, ill, et, ost, ock, eak, ame 
gr with in, ip, and, eed, oan, eet, owl, ave, ist 
sw with ira, am, eet, ing, mag, ift, eep, ept. 


llI. Sight Readbg: 
First Bc,y : 
Secor, d Boy : 
Third Boy : 
Fourth Boy : 

Third Boy : 

First Boy : 
Second Boy : 

Look, boys! Look up there! 
Do you see the sign in the window ? 
Lost! What is lost? 
Let us go and see. 
Read what it says, Dick. 
You can read the best. 
1 can't read it all. 
It is a dog that is lost. 
It is Jack Snow's dog. 
I know that dog. Don't you ? 
He is a small white dog 
with a black spot on his head. 
Isn't that too bad? 
We will see if we can find it. 
Come on. boys. 



You may hear me call, 
but no one has ever seen me. 
I fly kites for boys. 
I play with the leaves. 
I scatter the seeds of plants. 
I rock the bird in her nest. 
I move clouds across the sky. 
I toss ships on the sea. 
I am now hot, now cold. 
I am now strong, now weak. 
Who am I ? 


III. Sight Reading: 
" I am stronger than you are," said the wind to the 
"What can you do ?" asked the sun. 
"' I can make that man take off his cloak. 
Can you do that?" 
"' Let us try," said the sun. 
The wind blew and blew and blew. 
But the man drew his cloak closer about him. 
" Now I will try," said the sun. 
"It is getting hot," said the man; 
and he let his cloak fall off. 
--Adapted from .Esop 


This is a horse and this is a goose. 
The horse looks at the goose. 
The goose looks at the horse. 
The goose speaks to the horse. 
This is what she says: 
"I am better than you. 

I can walk on the ground like 
I can fly in the air like a bird. 
I can swim in the water like a 
I am as good as a horse. 
I am as good as a bird. 
I am as good as a fish." 


1. New Words: 
I. horse, goose, speaks, hetter, than, ground, fish. 
2. air, as. 

II. Phonics: 
1. Toach the f-llowing sounds, using these known 
words as keg words-- 
water wa- 
walk -alk 
pail -at. 
2. (,1) New words which the pupil can recognize inde- 
(i) Words haing phonogram. 
water, wash. was, wall, want, wand, 
watch, walnut. 
(ii) Words having ihonogram, all,' 
walk, talk, chalk. 
(iii) Words havinff phonogram ai--- 
pail, sail, fail. hail, mail, rail, tail, 
wail. snail, trail, paid, maid. laid, 
raid, braid, claim, pain, gain. lain, 
main. rain, stain, chain, drain, grain, 
strain, plain. Spain. train, brain, bait, 
air, fair. hair. pair, chair, stair, sail- 
ing, mailing, raining. 
(b) Long vowel sounds, with final E, as in known 
words, came, here, time, home, pure 
(i) Long vowel sound A, with final 
came. same, fame, lame, name, shame, 
flame, cape, shape, grape, pare, glare, 


I. New Words: 
cannot, well, rather, more, ways, thing. 

II. Phonics: 
1. Words in which s has the sound of z-- 

(a) Words ending in s-- 

is pies 
his ties 
has fries 
as cries 
was lies 

dies grows hoys bees 
flies snows girls trees 
skies blows dolls clouds 
spies throws toys teaches 
toes things birds dresses. 

(b) Words ending in se-- 

these chose tease praise 
those close please because 
rose prose wise pause 
hose nose use cheese 
pose ease raise choose. 

2. (a) Words in which final E does not lenhen the 
vowel sound-- 
have, live, give, arc, were. there, done, 
none, gone, move, prove. 
(b) Words containing the phonogram, e, ce, as in 
l,'nown word, love-- 
dove, above, glove, shove. 
lII. Sight Reading: 
1. The wind blows east, 
The wind blows west; 
The blue eggs in the robin's nest 
Will soon have wings and beak and hreast, 
And flutter and fly away. 





In the heart of a seed, 
Buried deep, so deep, 
A dear little plant 
Lay fast asleep. 

"Wake!" said the sunshine, 
"And creep to the light." 
"Wake !" said the voice 
Of the raindrops bright. 

The little plant heard, 
And it rose to see 
What the wonderful world 
Outside might be. 

I. ]Vew Words: 
1. seed, deep, dear, lay, sunshine, creep, raindrops, 
2. heart, Buried, light, voice, bright, heard, rose, won- 
derful, world, might. 

II. Phonics: 
1. Teach the following 
words as key words-- 
voice -oi 
light -ight 
world wor- 

sounds, using these known 



2. (a) Words having phonogram, o/-- 
coin, boil, coil, spoil, broil, broiling, moist, 
hoist, ointment. 
(b) Words having phonogram, 
van, vat, vest, vast, vine, vase, vote, veal, 
vain, verse, cave, pave, shave, stove, drove, 
hive, strive, drive. 
(c) Words having phonogram, ce-- 
ace in lace, face, place, race, space, grace. 
ice in ice, mice, rice, spice, twice, slice, 
anco in dance, prance, lance, chance, dis- 
ence in fence, pence, hence, whence, ab- 
sence, presence. 
ince in since, mince, prince, quince. 
Other words ending in 
sauce, ounce, flounce, peace, bounce, pounce, 
voice, fleece, choice. 
(d) Words having the soft sound of c in initial 
cent, city, circus, circle, cinders, Cinderella. 
(e) Word having phonogram, igt-- 

light bright lighter 
tight fright tighter 
sight flight fighter 
might slight brighter 
right delight sunlight 
night daylight moonlight 




Words having phonogram, wor-- 
world, word, work, worst, worth, 


llI. ,S'igit Reading: 


Said little Ted, " When I'm a man-- 
It's rery long to wait-- 
But then I'm going to buy a clock 
Without a half-past eyltt. 

'" I'd have such good times right along 
From breakfast until late, 
If our big clock went on and on 
And skipped that half-past eight. 

" But almost e.ery morning now 
I hear Mamma or Kate 
('all, ' Ted! it's nearly time for school, 
Make ltaste, it's half-past eight I' 

" And in the evening it's the same, 
Or worse. I know I hate 
To have papa say, ' Bedtime, Ted, 
Look there--it's half-past eight !' 

" Now, when I get to school to-day, 
First thing I'll take my slate, 
And make a pictre of a clock 
That has no half-past eight !' 

A non 





I have a little garden, 
And every summer day 
I dig it well, and rake it well, 
And pull the weeds away. 

I have a little garden, 
And every summer night 
I water all the pretty flowers, 
And watch them with delight. 

In my little garden 
I have a little walk; 
I take my sisters by the hand, 
And there we go and talk. 

Busy bees come humming by, 
To gather honey sweet; 
And singing birds look in to see 
What they can get to eat. 

I. New Words: 
1. have, garden, summer, dig, rake, pull, weeds, night, 
flowers, delight, take, sisters, bees, humming, gather, 
sweet, singing. 
2. every, pretty, Busy, honey. 


[I. PI, onics: 
I. Teach the following sounds, using these 
words as key words-- 
wonderful -ful 
every -y. 

2. (a) Words having phonogram, ful-- 

cupful playful spoonful beautiful 
joyful hopeful glassful spiteful 
careful pailful cheerful plentiful 
painful handful shameful powerful. 


(b) Words ending in y (short)-- 

dusty many curly carry forty 
any merry very holly chimney 
hal)py cherry jolly thirty berry 
bunny lucky twenty cranky jelly 
empty dainty sleepy fairy rainy 
plenty pretty dirty milky fifty 
Penny Ducky Lucky Hickory Dickory 

(c) Words containing z-- 
size gaze buzz breeze 
prize haze buzzing freeze 
doze blaze whiz sneeze 
froze graze whizzing wheeze 
zig-zag squeeze. 

(d) Words containing g (soft)-- 
gem, gentle, germ, George, magic, angel, mar- 
gin, danger, manger, stranger, ginger. 


(e) Words ending in ge-- 

age change hinge edge bridge 
cage range fringe ledge judge 
btrge strange plunge hedge badge 
dodge porridge lounge wedge huge. 

(f) Words containing x-- 
box wax six foxes 
fox tax sixty boxes 
vex lax sixteen vexes. 

III. Sig]t Reading: 
]Iargaret loves her pretty doves. 
See! They fly down to her. 
They light on her head 
and on her arms and s]toulders. 
They are all around her. 
Margaret has some corn and oats 
for her doves. 
Listen! " Coo-coo! Coo-coo! 
How do you do?" say the doves. 
"Come, pretty doves! Come. 
Here is some corn for you. 
Dear little Cream White, come to me. 
Yes, Glisten, Fan Tail, and Tumbler, you may come 
tO0. j) 
"' Coo-coo ! Coo-coo !" they say. 
"We thank you." 



" This stocking is full," said 
Santa Claus- 
"As full as it can be." 
A mouse sat licking his little paws, 
Not far from the Christmas tree. 

He saw and heard old 
Santa Claus, 
Then he ran across the floor 
And said, "Just let my try, 
I'm sure I can put in more." 

Old Santa Claus laughed and 
shook his head, 
" You cannot do it, I know ;" 
But mousie gnawed and gnawed 
and gnawed, 
And put a hole in the toe. 



Bright little star, 
Shining afar, 
Tell me, I pray, 
What means Christmas Day? 


Christmas, my child, 
Is a song from above, 
The sweet, happy song 
Of God's great love. 

I. New Words: 
1. stocking, full, mouse, licking, from, Just, let, try, 
because, I'm, shook,, head, hole, toe, Bright, 
star, Shining, afar, happy, God's, love, pray, means, 
child, song, above, sweet. 
2..Santa Claus, paws, saw, floor, sure, laughed, gnawed. 
II. Pltonics: 
Teach the following sounds, using these known 

words as key words-- 
Santa Claus -au 
saw -aw 
laugh -gh 
gnaw gn- 

(a) Words having phonograms, au and aw-- 
au in cause, pause, because. Maud. Paul 
aw in paw, raw, awl. shawl, straw, flaw, claw, 
draw, claws, paws, draws, lawn, yawn, 
yawning, awning, drawl, drawls. 
(b) Words ending in the phonogram, glt, hawng 
the sound of f-- 
laugh, rough, tough, enough, cough, trough. 
(c) Words containing the phonogram, pit, having 
the sound of f-- 
telephone, alphabet, Philip, elephant, camphor, 


III. Sigl, t Reading: 


All the bells were ringing, 
All the birds were singing, 
When ]Iolly sat down crying 
:For her broken doll. 

O, you silly Moll! 
Sobbing and sighing 
For a broken doll, 
When all the hells are ringing, 
And all the birds are singing. 
--('It ristina Rossetti 

This is the dolly that I love best; 
This is the way flint she likes to rest, 
Here in my arms in her white gown dressed, 
Dear little dolly baby. 
Hush-a-bye! Hush-a-bye! 
Dear ]ilt]e dolly, rock-a-bye! 
Hush-a-bye! Hush-a-bye! 
Sweet little dolly baby. 
Singing so softly, I lay her here: 
Speak very gently; she'll wake, I fear l 
I must be working, but I'll be near, 
Dear little dolly baby! 
wHarriet L. Grote 
From " Holiday Songs," by Emilie Poulsson 
--For method see page 88 of this Manual, also Chapter XI. 




The rain is raining all around, 
It falls on field and tree, 
It rains on the umbrellas here 
And on the ships at sea. 


It is raining all around. 
Who has an umbrella? 

"I have," said the lark; 
And he flew under a leaf. 

" I have," said the spider; 
And he crept under a stone. 

"I have," said the bee; 
And he went into a flower bell. 

"I don't want one," said the goose; 
And she ran out into the rain. 

I. New Words: 
1. raining, around, falls, umbrellas, here, lark, leaf, 
spider, crept, stone, bee, into, flower, bell. 
2. field, flew. 


lI. Phonics: 
1. Teach the following 
words as key words-- 
field -ie 
flew -ew 
they -ey. 


sounds, using these 

Words having phonogram, @ 
field pier grief 
shield fierce chief 
piece brief 
niece thief. 

(b) Words having phonogram, ew-- 
new new stew 
few pew knew 
dew newspaper. 
(c) Words having phonogram, ey-- 
they, grey, obey. 
(d) New phonogram, ei, related to ey-- 
reindeer sleigh eight weight 
rein skein eighteen neigh 
vein weigh eighty neighbour. 

lIl. Sight Reading: 

Boats sail on the rivers, 
And ships sail on the seas, 
But clouds that sail across the skies 
Are prettier than these. 


There are bridges on the rivers, 
As pretty as you please; 
But the bow that bridges heaven, 
And overtops the trees, 
And builds a roof from earth tb sky, 
Is prettier far than these. 
--Chr.istiza Rossetti 


When I climb into bed at night, 
I shut my eyes up very tight, 
And listen for the Sandman. 

They say I mustn't take one peek, 
They say I mustn't ever speak, 
If I would catch the Sandman. 

But then I always go to sleep, 
Before I hear him come creep---creep, 
I've never seen the Sandman. 
--Rose Broo's 
IOT'E.--For method sec page 88 of this hlanual, also Chapter XI. 


Pp. 33-34. 

Pp. 35-36. 

Pp. 40-41. 

P. 46. 

Pp. 47-48. 

Pp. 49-53. 


The story furnishes suitable material for 
various forms of self-expression. 
Mediums--plasticine, crayola, charcoal, to be 
used in picturing parts of the lesson. 

See Chapter IX--Dramatization. 
Encourage variety in choice of parts. In 
dramatizing, the teacher should be the guide, 
but she should render herself unnecessary as 
soon as possible, and allow the play to be 
managed by the pupils. 

The pupils may make in plasticine the 
" snug little house" and its characteristic 

The pupils may draw pictures that will tell 
parts of the story. They may colour outline 
pictures prepared by the teacher. 

The Little Rose-Bush. 
A beautiful poem for 
page 88 of this Manual. 

memorization. See 

The story furnishes opportunity for expres- 
sion in modelling, drawing, and free-cutting. 

Words having the phonog-ram ng, in which 
g is sounded in each of the syllables: 

hungry angry stronger strongest 
younger youngest finger language 
longer longest hunger jingle. 


Pp. 79-80. 

Pp. 82-83. 

Pp. 85-86. 

Pp. 88-90. 

expression in modelling and in free-cutting 
of--the boy, the old woman, the old man, 
the cow, the dog, etc. 
Tell the English folk tale--Johnny Cake. 
Tell other stories in which small creatures 
outwitted larger animals, as "How Did He 
19o It?'" The Tar Baby of the Uncle lemus 
narratives, and the Norse Tale--Three Billy 
Goals Gruff. 
Words having the phonogram, ought: 
thought bought brought. 
Words having the phonogram wr: 
wrote write wrist wrong 
wren wreck wrap wreath. 
Teach The Firefly Sony, and the Rainbow 
and Moon poems. 



An accomplished reader apprehends new words as 
wholes or by syllables, without a conscious recognition 
of the individual letter sounds. It is only when the spell- 
ing is exceptional that the functions of individual letters 
are considered. That the pupils may early acquire the 
requisite promptness and certainty in apprehending new 
words, systematic daily drill is necessary. For this 
purpose the teacher will find it useful to build up 

Chart just begun--(Primcr, page 12) 

a e o 12 


p, c, 1, d, n, m 





I'hart mr, re advance,l--(Primer, pae 14 ) 

a e i o 
at et ot 
a e 

p,c,l, d, n, m. h, t, b, g, s 



ut ee 
up ow 

('hart still more advanced--( Primer, page 18) 


a e i o u 
ag eg ig og ug ay 
at et ot ut ee 
an en in on un y 
ap ip op up ow 
all ell ill ea 
ack eck ick ock uck oo 
and end oy 
ad ed id o ud oa 
st est ist ost ust 
am em im om um 

p, c, l. d, n, m, h, t, b, g, s, r, f. w, sh, wh, 
gr. eh, st, pl, sp. j, sl, tr, sn. 

The order may be varied and the list extended at wi]l. 

A new chart should be begun and built up with every 
new class. The chart loses its usefulness unless it is a 
living thing, growing with the knowledge of phonics by 
the class. 


Instead of the chart, the teacher may write out on 
the black-board the different " word fanlilies," thus--(See 
Phonies, I'hapter V I.) 

dam hat cap 
ham cat gap 
jam fat lap 
rain hal. map 
Sam nmi, nap 
tm ]'a t rap 
sat sap 


As many of these families are placed on the board as 
possible. These word lists may be used for oral class 
drills, but it will also be found profitable to use them as 
a substitute for desk work, the weaker pupils especially 
being sent to the 'black-board to spell all the words 
These word lists are left on the board for daily drill 
until thoroughly mastered, when other and more difficult 
lists are substituted, until all the phonograms and con- 
sonants have been drilled upon in all possible combina- 
tions. If black-board space is not available, excellent 
results can be obtained by writin.- the lists in lae 
characters on large sheets of paper. It will he found con- 
venient to fasten these sheets to a roller over which they 
may be thrown when thev have been read. 
For other drill devices, see Chapter VIII. 


(c) Sentences expressing contrasted ideas may be used : 
(i) My apple is sweet. 
Your apple is sour. 
(ii) The butcher sells meat. 
The baker sells bread. 

(d) Write a suitable sentence on the black-board, such 
as: The boys went to tlte fair on Tuesday. Hare several 
readings, placing the emphasis successively on each word 
or word group. For example, a pupil is asked to read so 
as to make clear that it was not the girls that went, or that 
they did not go from the fair, or that they went to the fair 
and not to the picnic, etc. Pupils trained thus soon gTasp 
the meaning of emphasis, and this makes effeetire criticism 
of their oral reading much simpler. 

4. Have two lists of words written on the black-board, 
one of names of animals, the other of words expressing 

what animals do: 

sheep bark 
cows bleat 
,logs swim 
ft.,It ,wo 
etc. etc. 

One pupil points to sheep, another to bleat. Two other 
pupils succeed them, and so on. 

5. Pupils may play store. The store-keeper has a 
stock of toys, articles collected in the school-room, etc. 
Others come to buy with cards on which the names of the 
toys are written. They present the cards, naming the 
articles they wish to buy. 


10. Pupils eujoy acting as the teacher, in testing the 
class on word-re(gnition, reading of parts of familiar 
rhymes, etc. A favourite method is for the "teacher" to 
point to the word and call on a pupil to use it in a story. 
11. Cut-up sentences may be distributed among sev- 
eral pupils, each receiving a word or word group. The 
pupils who hold the slips are sent in turn to stand side 
by side before the class and display their cards. The 
other pupils watch the sentence being built up and strive 
to be the .first ready to read it aloud. A variation of this 
device is to hand out the sections of the sentence, in any 
order, to pupils standing in a row 1)efore the class. The 
teacher then reads the story aloud or writes it on the 
black-board, and selected pupils try to arrange the pupils 
in the right order to present the sentence. 
12. For variety, the teacher may substitute a drawing 
of an object for its name, in a sentence written for read- 
ing from the black-board. 
13. The teacher may draw a fish-pond on the black- 
board. In this she writes the words to be used in the 
drill. These represent fish which the pupils "catch " by 
naming the words. These are then erased or scored out. 
Resourceful teachers devise many varied applications of 
the plan of this device adapted to the locality or to special 
occasions. For example, in the fall the words reprent 
fruit or leaves to be picked from a tree. pumpkins to be 
loaded into or taken from a wagon, apples to be packed 
into a box, dishes to be set upon a table, etc. 
When a fire has occurred, draw a picture of a burning 
building and a street leading to it. The pupils run to 
the fire by reading words written on the way thither, or 


important, too, that the desk work should be attractive. 
The most profitable exercises give the pupil something to 
think about or create. 
To permit a normal muscular and nervous develop- 
ment, it is imperative that the amount of writing done 
by primary classes should be restricted as much as pos- 
sible. Fine, close work should be avoided. The mini- 
mum letters on the pupil's word or sentence-building 
cards should be at least one fourth of an inch in height 
and the capitals at least half au inch. 
It is obvious that, to satisfy these conditions, a some- 
what large and varied supply of objective material is 
essential. Most or all of this can be improvised or ob- 
tained locally by the teacher, but when the means are 
available, much excellent material may be had frJm any 
school-supply house. Each pupil should have several small 
boxes, bags, or cnx'cl-pes made of stout paid, r, to enable 
the material used to be conveniently kept and distributed 
with a minimun of time and in good order. The making 
of these envch, pes from strong manilla paper makes an 
excelleut exercise in Manual Training. 
A searching but sympathetic supervision of the desk 
work is essential to secure good results. The teacher 
should give constant attention to neatness in writing and 
the arrangement of material on the desks. Some dis- 
tinctive reward may be given. Pupils may be directed 
to examine a particularly good exercise, its special merit 
being stated first by the teacher or developed by ques- 
tioning and comparison. 
Always bearinff in mind that the general aim of desk 
work is not merely to keep the pupil employed, but to 
continue his instruction and training, the teacher should 


frequently question the pupils about their exercises, to 
ensure their understanding clearly what they are doing. 
lgo'rE.--A mimeograph, a simple copying-pad, or a set of rub- 
ber type will save much labour in preparing material for a large 
primary class in a graded school. For other devices the teacher 
is referred to Steps in the Phonic System, The C)pp, Clark 
Company, Limited; The Phonic Manual, and especially, Miss 
Graham's Primary Work, published by The ]kIacmillan Company 
of Canada, Limited. 
1. Heavy nmnilla paper or cardboard cut into squares 
may have letters in script on one side and in print on the 
other. Each pupil should have several of each letter. A 
new word nmy be written on the black-board and built 
up one or more times by the pupil with his cards. Ite 
may even make short sentences illustrating tilt. use of 
new words. Later, when he has made some progress in 
phonics, he may arrange his letters to form a series of 
words of one faintly. For example, the teacher writes 
bat on the board. The pupils then build bat, cat. fat, 
etc. Pupils may compete to see who will find the most 
words. For such exercises in word di.-_covery, it is desir- 
able that the pupils should be supplied with additional 
cards with the phonograms to be used. 
2. In the earliest stae, it will be found useful to 
supply snmll cards with the words or wrd gr,ups in 
script on one side and in print on the other, or, if printed 
cards are not obtainable, in script on both sides. A word 
or word group, newly ill class is written on the 
black-board, and the pupil selects all the words like that 
on the black-board, arranging the cards in a column on 
his desk. 
With these word-cards the pupil may also reproduce 
short sentences written by the teacher on the black-board, 


or he may arrange his cards to form original sentences. 
In this case, it is best for the teacher to write on the black- 
board the aame of the object about which these sentences 
are to be made. 
3. When a entence has been read in class, it may be 
left on the black-board or a copy of it may be placed be- 
fore the pupil. Other copies may be cut up by the teacher, 
and, with the separate words or word groups, the pupil 
re-forms the sentcnce. 
4. Pictures of objects may be cut from old magazines 
or papers and pa.-:tcd on cardboard. Printed letters or 
words may be cut out also, and the name of the picture 
paste, d on the other side of the card. The pupils may 
do all this work themselves. But in any ca.e they will 
lind great pleasure in looking at the pictures and names 
and arrangin them. If the pupil has such "picture word- 
cards" as, fish, frog, hen, duck, dog, fox, and lion, he 
may draw a p,nd, a big wood, and a farm-yard on his 
slate (or he may l.t a part of his desk represent each of 
these places), and may arrange his "animals" in their 
l,roper '" homes." IIe may be guided by the pictures at 
first, but later by the names on the card. When he is in 
doubt, he may '" check" his work from the picture. This 
game or some modification of it is very popular. 
5. Words written on slips of paper or on the black- 
boaM may be traced with shoe-pegs or short splints on 
the desk. If diamond dyes are used to colour some of the 
pegs, interest is increased. If kindergdrten sticks are 
available, these are better than the pegs. Such material, 
when not in use, should be kept by the teacher. 
6. When the teacher has aught such a word as, 
make, let her write make, and follow it with a picture 


of a ladder, chair, etc., drawn wholly with straight lines. 
Never mind the crudeness of it. The pupils may then, 
with splints arranged as are the strokes in the teacher's 
picture, do what is asked. 
7. Names of objects in the school-room are pinned to 
the objects themselves, aud the pupils (if the class is 
sma]l) may be al]owed to go quietly about the room look- 
ing at the names. Then envelopes containing several 
copies of each name are given to them, to match with the 
names on the objects. 
After some days of the work indicated in the preceding 
section, the names may be taken off the objects, and the 
pupils may be asked to replace them. 
8. The pupils like to copy or make sign-boards. The 
teacher may draw a sign-board with the words '" Keep off 
the grass," "Keep out," or " Railway Crossing--Danger," 
etc. The pupils will delight in drawing the sign-boards 
and in writing or printing in the words. 
9. Give each pupil some platicine, which may be 
obtained from any school-supply house. Three pounds 
is enough for a class of twenty-five. With this the pupils 
may outline letters or words written very large on sheets 
of paper. Later, they may form the letters without the 
10. Scrap-books are of great use to the teacher, espe- 
cially if they are kept in loose-leaf form. If a lesson 
adapted to a special season, such as Christmas or Thanks- 
giving, has been a success, the teacher should preserve it. 
If she uses stout manilla paper (12 inches by lS inches), 
she may make a suitable drawing and write the lesson 
beneath, or she may ask an older pupil to write or print 
the lesson. The teacher may then make a suitable book- 



Monologue: For example, pages 2t, 38, 39, 51. A 
pupil impersonates the characters which speak in these 
Dialogue: For example, pages 30, 45, 46, 47. Each 
pupil, impersonating the characters, speaks in turn. 
Drama: For example, pages 17, 35, 55, 65. For example, page 81 should be played in 
pantomime without words; page 82 should include both 
pantomime and speech. 


The real drama requires scenery, several characters, 
and action. It may or may not be in the words of the book. 
The improvised st'enery may be nothing more than the 
ordinary school furniture; the pupil's imagination supplies 
all deficiencies. To hhn the teacher's desk is, for the time 
being, a real fairy palace ; an ordinary chair is transformed 
into a kins ihrone. The choosing of the requisite scenery 
calls for judgment and ingenuity on the part of th pupils, 
and is no mean part of the fun. For a good examl)le of 
this kind of play, read Browning's Derelopme,t. 
At first some of /be ]e.s timid pupils may be chosen 
to take part, and gradually even the most bashful should 
be brought in. Allow the pupils to choose who sl,all take 
the characters. It is often surprising how wise and true to 
life their selections are--a quiet little fellow for the mouse, 
a big noisy boy for the lion, etc. Have fhe pupils 
also what shall repre.ent the objects needed. When all is 
ready, let the teacher efface herself as much as possible, 

DtA]fAT]:ZATION 16;' 

tlen : 
Cat : '" :No, indeed." 
Hen: "Will you help me, dog?" 
Dog: '" :No, :I won't." 
Hen : "Will you, pig ?" 
Pig: " Indeed, I won't." 
lien: " Then I'll plant it myse]f.'" 
plants the wheat.) 

"What is it? What will you do with it?" 
"I want to plant it. Wi]] ym he]p me, cat ?" 

(,he :t,,o W and 

Scene II: 
Hen: "This wheat is ripe. It is ready to cff. Wi]| 
you help me to cut the wheat, cat ?" 
('at: "I will not." 
Hen : "Will you, dog ?" 
Dog: " No, I don't like to work." 
IIen : "Will you, pig?" 
Pig : "No, indeed." 
][n: " Then I'll cut it myself." (he pretends to 
',t the wheat with a sickle or with a sc)'the, and to gather 
it np into a bundle.) 

Scene III: 
]-[en (With a small bag of wheat or something to repre- 
sent it) : " I must grind this wheat into flour. Who will 
help me ? Will you, cat ?" 
Cat: " Indeed, I won't. I don't see what you want 
to work for." 
:Hen: "Will you, dog?" 
Dog: "' No, I don't want to grind wheat." 
Hen : " Will you, pig ?" 
Pig: "No. I don't like hard work." 


lien: "Very well. then I'll grind it myself." (She 
pretends to feed the grain into a hand-mill and turn the 

Scene IV: 
Hen (With a bag supposed to contain flour): "Who 
t'ill help me make this flour into bread? Will you, cat?" 
Cat : " No." 
lien: " Will you, dog?" 
Dog: " Not I." 
Ilen : "Will you, pig ?" 
Pig: " No, I want to sleep." 
Hen : "Well, if you lazy people won't help, I must do 
it myself." {She goes through the motions of mixing and 
rolling the bread.) 

Similarly with the baking of the bread. 

Scene VI: 
tIen : " I think my bread is baked." (She takes it out 
of the oven.) " How nice it looks. Who would like to eat 
this bread ?" 
(-'at (springing orward) : "I will." 
Dog ( " " ): "I will." 
Pig ( " " ): "I will." 
Hen : " O, no, you lazy people can't have any. 
You would not plant the seed. 
You would not cut the wheat. 
You would not grind the wheat. 
You would not make the bread. 


short exercises in transcription. Phonetic words are 
almost the only ones pupils should be expected to spell; 
certainly not all the words in the Primer. Formal tests 
in spelling, either oral or written, with a view to making 
promotions, are quite out of place at this stage. The 
pupil's facility in word-recognition and his capacity in 
interpreting thought from suitable printed matter is the 
most practical test of fitness for promotion. 


1. General preparation. From the first, pupils have 
exercises in writing words as wholes from the teacher's 
model, and in phonic analysis. 
2. When they have seen the word Run of.ten 
enough on the black-board and in their own work, and 
have written it often enough from the model on the black- 
board, they will be able to write it from memory. They 
can do this without knowing anything about letters, either 
as names or sounds, having learned to write, as well as 
to recognize, the word as a whole. 
3. When they have had both oral and written phonics, 
the power to remember the form of words is greatly in- 
creased, and they are able to get the image through the 
voice, that is, the slow pronunciation, by the teacher or 
by themselves, of phonetic words, recalls the letters that 
represent the sounds. 
4. In the primary classes, a more rapid succession of 
images of a word may be obtained by oral work than by 
written, because of the great difficulty and slowness of the 
writing. It is recommended that the words spelled should 
be taken up in phonic groups. 



The teacher should now repeat the whole poem several 
times expressively, with proper tone and time, taking great 
care to enunciate clearly. Each recitation should be as 
careful and expressive as those preceding it. The pupils 
should not be called on to recite until they are likely 
to do so without error. It is better to prevent errors than 
to labour to eradicate them afterwards. 
The pupils then recite, following the teacher through 
the whole selection, first line by line, then two or three 
lines at a time; next by stanzas, with no going back until 
the whole is completed. 
These repetitions continue as long as it is found neces- 
sary. The pupils should be required to recite expressively 
at every repetition. Little u,e should be made of simul- 
taneous repetition l,y the class, as it is difficult to prevent 
this from becoming a formal sing-song. 
Have the pupils raise their arms high above the head 
and imitate the leaves trembling in the wind {fluttering 
of fingers). Then have them imitate the motion of the 
trees bowin.g down their heads (arms waving gently). 
This will give a little rest, and help them to realize the 
meaning more fully. 
.ks soon as the quicker pupils can do so, they may be 
asked to recite the whole seltxtion. This gives variety, 
and by soliciting their aid interest is sustained. In deal- 
ing with the pupils' recitations they should be made to 
understand that while verbal accuracy is required, the 
clear, forcefl0, pleasing expression of the thought is most 
highly regarded. 



0 there is a little artist 
Who paints, in the cold night hours, 
Pictures for little children 
Of wonderful trees and flowers. 

The moon is the lamp he paints by, 
His canvas the window-pane. 
His brush is a frozen snow-flake, 
Jack Frost is the artist's name. 


I saw you toss the kites on high 
And blow the birds about the sky; 
And all around I heard you pass, 
Like ladies' skirts across the grass. 

I sav the different things you did, 
But always you yourself you hid. 
I felt you push, I heard you call, 
I could not see yourself at all. 
--R. L. Stevenson 

" Help one another," the snow-flakes said. 
As they cuddled down in their fleecy bed; 
" One of us here would quickly melt; 
One of us here would not be felt, 
But I'll help you and you'll help me, 
And then what a big, white drift we'll see." 


Kind words are little sunbeams 
That sparkle as they fall; 
And loing smiles are sunbeams, 
._ light of joy to all. 

There surely is a gold mine somewhere 
Down beneath the grass, 
For dandelions are popping up 
In every place you pass; 
But if you want to gather some, 
You'd better not delay, 
For the gold will turn to silver soon 
And all will blow away. 
--E. L. Benedict 

Tle Hads-- 
Beautiful hands are they that do 
Work that is noble, good. and true, 
Moment by moment the whole day through. 

7'le Face-- 
Beautiful faces are those that wear 
The light of a pleasant spirit there, 
It matters little if dark or fair. 


Hearts, like doors, will ope with ease 
To very, very little keys ; 
And don't forget that two are these: 
" I thank you, sir," and "If you please." 


A little work and a little play, 
And hours of quiet sleep, 
A cheerful heart and a sunny face, 
And lessons learned, and things in place,-- 
Ah! that's the way the children grow, 
Don't you know ? 

I have only one mouth, but nay ears are two,-- 
So I'll only tell half that I hear, wouldn't you? 
I'll tell all the good and the sweet and fle true, 
But the rest I will try to forget; wouldn't you? 

Back of the bread is the snowy flour, 
Back of the flour is the mill, 
Back of the mill are the wheat and the shower, 
The sun and the Father's will. 

Rainbow at night 
Is the sailor's delight; 
Rainbow in the morning, 
Sailors, take warning. 

If you wish to be happy 
All the day, 
Make some one else happy, 
That's the way. 

There's a time to save and a time to spend, 
A time when we should money lend; 
But never a time in any day 
For foolishly throwing our money away. 


The inner side of every cloud 
Is lways bright and shining. 
Then let us turn our clouds about 
And always wear them inside out 
To show the silver lining. 

It was only a glad " Good M,,rning!" 
As she passed along the way, 
But it spread the moruins glory 
Over the livelong day. 

The thing that goes the farthest 
Toward making life worth while,- 
That costs lhe least and does lhe mob-t, 
Is just a pleasant smile. 

Three little rules we all should keep 
To make life happy and bright: 
Smile in the morning, and smile at noon, 
And keep on smiling at night. 

Little deeds, like little seeds, 
Grow and grow and grow; 
Some are flowers and some are weeds, 
Giving joy or woe. 
Let us sow but happy deeds 
Everywhere we go. 

No matter what you try to do 
At home or at your school, 
Always do your very best; 
There is no better rule. 


By all these lovely tokens 
September days are here, 
With summer's best of weather 
And autumn's best of cheer. 
mHelen Hunt Jackson 

Tell me, Sunny Goldenrod, 
Growing everywhere, 
Did fairies come from fairyland 
And make the dress you wear ? 

I love you, laughing toldenrod, 
And I will try like you 
To fill each day with deeds of cheer, 
Be loving, kind, and true. 

The Goldenrod is in the fields, 
The maple trees burn bright, 
The sun is down by six o'clock, 
Atd then it soon is night. 


0ctoher gave a party; 
The leaves by hundreds came, 
The ('hestnuts. Oaks, and Maples, 
And leaves of every name. 
The Chestnuts came in yellow, 
The Oaks in crimson dressed, 
The lovely Misses Iap]e 
In scarlet looked their best. 
--George Cooper 


At Christmas play and make good cheer, 
For Christmas comes but once a year. 

Sing a song of (hri. tmas, 
Stockings full of toys. 
Such a lot of presents 
For all good girls and boys. 

IIark! the happy bells are ringing, 
Loving thoughts o'er earth are winging 
Kind deeds like the flowers spriuging, 
Christmas comes again. 

Can you tcll why 
It needs alway 
A little child 
To make Christmas gay 
I think because 
Once, in the hay, 
The Christmas Child-- 
Just a Baby--lay. 


O. I am the little New Year, ho, ho! 
Here I come tripping it over the snow, 
.baking my bells with a merry din, 
So open your doors and let me in. 



I am little February, the second of the year, 
I bring a merry greeting to little children dear, 
I'm shortcr than my brothers, the shortest month am I, 
But if you'll only love me, to do my best I'll try. 

February mornings 
Frosty panes can show; 
Still we're making snowballs, 
Still the sleigh-bells go. 

When Mart'h comes in like a lion, 
It goes out like a lamb. 

Iu Spring, when stirs the wind, I know 
That soon the crocus buds will show; 
For 'tis the wind who bids them wake, 
And into pretty blossoms break. 

Whichever way the wind doth blow, 
Some heart is glad to have it so. 
S, blow it East or blow it West, 
The wind that blows, that wind is best. 


To-day the world is very wet, 
Tho' yesterday was dry. 
I think last night the bear upset 
The dipper in the sky. 

]larch winds, April showers, 
Bring forth May flwers. 


What does it mean when the blue-bird comes 
And builds its nest singing sweet and clear, 
When violets peep among bladcs of grass, 
These are the signs that Spring is here. 

The world is so full of a number of things, 
I am sure we should all be as happy as kings. 
--R. L. ,qtevenson 

God sends His warm spring sunshine 
To melt the ice and snow, 
To start the green leaf buds, 
And make the flowers grow. 

The rain is raining all around, 
It falls on field and trce, 
It rains on the umbrellas here, 
And on the ships at sea. 
--R. L. Stevenson 

Then sing, happy children, 
The bird and bee are here. 
The Maytime is the gay time, 
The blossom time of the year. 


Dainty little dandelion, 
Smiling on the lawn, 
Sleeping in the dewy eve, 
Waking with the dawn. 

The little birds fly over, 
And oh! how sweet they sing! 
To tell the happy children 
That once again 'tis Spring. 

Ilere blooms the sweet red clover 
There peeps the violet blue. 
Oh, happy little children, 
God made them all for you. 





1. The Summers' Readers--The Primer. Maud Sum- 
mers. L. A. Noble, New York. 
2. ('vr's new Primer. Ellen M. Cvr. {-inn & Co., 
These two primers begin with action words and supply 
nmch suggestive material for tea,hing by the metho,! 
given on page 24. The more advanced lessons are in 
dialogue form. 
3. Young and Field's Literary Readers--Primer and 
First Reader. Ginn & Co., Boston. 
4. The Natural Method Readers--A Primer. (_'harles 
Scribner's Sons, New York. 
5. The Rhyme and Story Primer. E. A. & M. F. 
Blaisdell. Little, Brown & ('o., Boston. 
The three primers named above are based on the 
Nursery P,hyme Method described on paze 17, etc. Th,y 
will be found highly suggestive with rcsl)e-t to the lncth,d 
of tem.hing and contain lnuch supplementary material 
which may be used by the teacher. 
6. The Beacon Primer. James II. Fassett. G inn & 
Co., Boston. 
7. The Progressive Road to Reading. Story Steps. 
Silver, Burdett and Co., Boston. 
8. The Child Life Readers--Primer. The Macmillan 
Co. of Canada, Ltd., Toronto. 
9. Wide Awake JuniorAn easy Primer. Cla'a 
Murray. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. 


17. Child's First Book. Florence Bass. D. C. Heath 
& Co., Xew York. 
The books in this list are all desirable for the library' 
of a primary r[om. The prices of these primers range 
from 30 cents to 4o cents each. 0nly a fewof them are 
listed at more than 40 cent. 

1. Stcri.s ta Tell to Children. Sara C. Bryant. 
IIouzhton, Mifflin Co., Boston. $1.10 
Fifty-one stories, with some suggestions for telling 
?. IIow to Tell Stories to ('hildren. Sara ('. Bryant. 
Ihmghton. Mittlin Co., Be:bin. $1.10 
' book of suggestions to teachers, with some good stories 
3. Kindergarten Stories and Morning Talks. Sara E. 
Wiltse. Ginn & ('o., Boston. 75 cents 
It contains many favourite stories in interesting form, 
suitable for telling to young children. Work is cor- 
related for one .veal. 
4. Ju:t So Stories. Kipling 
5. Wonder Book. IIawthorne 
6. Tanglewood Tales. Hawthorne 
7. Fifty Famous Stories Retold. James Baldwin. 
American ook Co.. New York. 44 cents 
8. Fairy Stories and Fables. James Baldwin. Ameri- 
'an I;,ok Co., New York. 44 cents 
9. Legend. Eery Child Should Know. II. W. Mabie. 
I)ouhleday, Page & Co., New Ydrk 
The "Every Chile] Should :Know" series contains many 
excellent books suitable for School Libraries. 


3. Primary Educatio. ]I,)nthly. Educational Pub- 
lishing Co., 50 Bromfield Street, Boston. $1.25 per year 
This is conducted along the same line as (2). One of these 
should 1)e taken. 
4. The School. Bloor and Spadina, Toronto. $1.25 per 
This is edited by Members of the Faculty of Education, 
University of Toronto. 
5. Oar Little Dots. Our Little Dots Publishing Co., 
4 Bouverie Street, London. E. C., England. 2d per cop)- 
6. My Magazine. Arthur Iee. Educational Book Co., 
London, England. $3.30 p_r )ear 
7. Little Fold's Magazine. Cassell & Co., London, Eng- 
land. $3.30 per year 


The Perry Picture Co., Malden, :Iass., publish 
pictures at from one cent upward. Many of these arc 
copies of Great Wort:s of Art; many are pictures of bird.,_', 
animals, men, and buildings. (Send for a catalogue.)